The Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War ( February 1904 – September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire of Nicholas II and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions to control Manchuria and Korea . Russia suffered numerous defeats to Japan. The war concluded with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt. The complete victory of the Japanese military surprised world observers. There were two major battles in the war. 1)The siege battle of Port Arthur(旅順：Ryojyun） The Siege of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順攻囲戦 August 1, 1904 – January 2, 1905), the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War. Port Arthur was widely regarded as one of the most strongly fortified positions in the world at the time. However, during the First Sino-Japanese War, General Nogi had taken the city from the forces of Qing China in only a few days. The easy victory during that previous conflict led to a much longer campaign, with much heavier losses than expected. The number of the death in this batle reached 15,400 and about 44,000 wounded. Rusia's death number was 16,000 and 30,000 wounded. Later the general Nogi's military plan was critisized because of the monotonous human wave tactics. The Siege of Port Arthur saw the introduction of much technology used in subsequent wars of the 20th century (particularly in World War I) including massive 28 cm canons capable of hurling 217-kilogram shells over 8 kilometers , as well as rapid-firing light canons. 2)Battle of The Tsushima(日本海海戦） It was fought on May 27–28, 1905 in the Tsushima Strait between Korea and southern Japan. In this battle the Japanese fleet under Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō destroyed two-thirds of the Russian fleet, which had traveled from Baltic Sea to reach the Far East. The Russian fleet(The Baltic fleet in Japanese) consisted of 38 battle ships while the number of Japan fleet was 108 . But the battle ships were 27. Japanese fire was more accurate because they were using the latest issued (1903) rangefinder, which had a range of 6,000 yards (5,500 m), while the Russian battleships were equipped with old type rangefinders from the 1880s, which only had a range of about 4,000 yards (3,700 m) .The battle was a devastating humiliation for Russia which lost all its battleships and most of its cruisers and destroyers. The battle effectively ended the Russo-Japanese War in Japan's victory. The Russians lost 4,380 lives and 5,917 captured. Japanese death number was only 117 and only three fleets were sunk.
1.The battle map of Russo-Japanese war 2. the battleship Mikasa which is well preserved in Yokosuka from the internet