年功序列：Nenkou-zyoretu is a seniority ranking system where salaries and promotions of employees are based on their period of service to the company.This system played an important role at the time of Japan's high economic growth period. As the world competitiveness has became more intense (has intensified), many corporations have changed this system into merit-based salary system. In recent years, employees need to think job changes by acquiring special knowledge and technologies. 終身雇用：Syusin-koyou is lifetime employment system. Companies offer their employees employment until retirement age in return for their absolutely loyalty to the company. This system played an important role at the time of Japan's high economic growth period. As the world competitiveness is intense, many Japanese employees have been laid off. Modern workers now consider the changing job market by acquiring special knowledge and technologies. 談合：Dangou is bid-rigging(collusion). Prospective companies illegally consult with each other and agree to the submit bids that have been prearranged among themselves. It is believed that construction companies frequently do this bid-rigging, where companies take turns to bid the lowest price. バブル経済：Bubble economy is the situation when the certain prices reach unusual level. In the late 1980's, Japan bubble economy burst after land and stock prices rose extremely high. Since then, Japanese economy has been sluggish and suffered from deflation up to now. リストラ：Resutora is the abbreviation of restructuring the organization of the company. This phenomenon also means that many employees lose their job. 天下り： Amakudari is the activity of companies whereby they hire retired high-ranking bureaucrats. Companies expect some favors from the bureaucrats or the organization in return. This activities are strictly prohibited but still prevalent in Japan. Stop amakudari is a major challenge in Japan now. ボーナス：Bonasu is a lump sum money which is periodically given to the employees in addition to the monthly salaries. The bonus is based on the performance of the company and usually given in July and December. 春闘：Syuntou is a spring labor union offensive. Many Industry-based company unions coordinate the demand of higher wages and benefits during spring. 根回し：Nemawasi is a process that aims to gain consensus before formal decision making. Various opinions and interests are considered in order to hummer out a proposal that would likely be supported by everyone. 系列：Keiretu are affiliate companies that aim to corporate and protect from merge and acquisition with each other. This term also refers to the companies which were once gigantic corporations (cooperate cliques) and were dissolved after world war second, but these companies has regrouped and made strong ties among them.