adventure of my life (Hajime Hirayama:平山新)

Economy and Industry(key words)

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終身雇用 Syusin koyou is the lifetime employment sysytem.Employees are guranteed employment until their retired age in return for their loyalty to the company. The system played an important role at the time of Japan's high economic growth period. In recent times, more employees are being laid off, making it more important for workers to prepare for the future job changes by acquiring special knowledge and skills. 年功序列 Nenko-jyoretu is the seniority ranking system where promotions and pay are determined by the length of the service to the company. The system played an important role of Japan's high economic growth period. Now, as Japan goes through economic restructuring, companies are putting more emphasis on merit-based promotion systems. バブル経済 A bubble economy is a  situation? when certain asset values rise to unusual levels. In the late 1980's, real estate and stock prices rose dramatically in Japan.To say that "bubble burst" is to say that the price down (value declined). リストラ Risutora is the Japanese abbreviation for restructuring. Restructuring is when the organization of a company is changed. This usually means that some people lose their jobs. 天下り Amakudari is the practice of business organizations hiring retired high-level bureaucrats. The companies allegedly recieve favors from the bureaucrats, or their departments, and in return they offer retireing bureaucrats private positons at high salaries. This practice has been strongly criticized, but it is still spread (prevalent) in various organizations. Reform of the civil service system to stop amakudari is a major challenge for the government. 談合 Dangou refers to bid-rigging. Bid-rigging is an agreement where prospective bidders illegally consult with each other and agree to submit bids that have been prearranged among themselves. This practice is believed to be common in the construction industry, where companies take turns being the lowest bidder. ボーナス Bonasu is a lump sum of money periodically given to employees in addition to their monthly salaries. The amount of the bonus is decided by the performance of the company. Bonasu is usually given in June and in December. 春闘 Syunto is the spring labor offensive. Many industry-based labor unions coordinate demands for wage increases and benefits in the spring. 根回し Nemawashi is a process that aims to gain consensus and avoid conflicts prior to formal decision making. In the process, the views and interests of all those involved are considered in order to hammer out a proposal that would likely be supported by everyone. 系列 Keiretu are affiliated business enterprise groups. In general, the enterprises in the same keiretu cooperate with each other, own equity in one another and protect affiliates from mergers and acquisitions. The term also refers to the re groupings of former subsidiaries of corporate cliques that existed before World War 2. 就職活動 job hunting 週休二日制 five-day workweek 定年退職 mandatory retirement 契約社員 a cntract employee 派遣社員 a temporary employee / a temp 在宅勤務 telecommuting 外資系会社 foreign-affiliated company 人員削減 downsizing 転勤 transfer 退職金 retirement allowance 単身赴任 husband-only transfer
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