In ancient times , most people in Japan might live in cave dwellings. Around 2000 years ago, the housing technology was progressed and pit dweller's house were made. there are many ruins of this type of houses . The basement of the house were made by digging a hole in the ground and the wooden frame of the house were set up from the basement. Thatches were used for covering the house and protect from rain and strong wind. Usually hearth was set in the center of the basement to cook and to keep the room warm.
cave house 2014-01-12 15.49.12
Shinden-type house was created during the Heian-period (from in the 9th to 12th century) for noble class. Shinden is a house on stilts with its roofs thatched with Hiwada (bark of Japanese cypress). Shinden home was basically consisted of one room. Some Shinden house were linked to another Shinden houses by bridges. In front of the houses, the garden with an pond laid out. Folding screen and bamboo blind screen were used as partition. Syoji (障子)and Fusuma(襖)were not used at that time.  
shinden style shinden-2