adventure of my life (Hajime Hirayama:平山新)

history of housing style (no image)

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In ancient times , most people in Japan might live in cave house. Around 2000 years ago, the housing technology was progressed and pit dweller's house were made. there are many ruins of this type of houses . The basement of the house were made by digging the ground and the wooden frame of the house were set up from the basement. Thatches were used for covering the house and protect from rain and strong wind. Usually harness was set in the center of the basement to cook and to keep the room warm. Shinden-type house was created during the Heian-period (from in the 9th to 12th century) for high-class nobles. Shinden is a house on stilts with its roofs thatched with Hiwada (bark of Japanese cypress). Some Shinden house were linked to another houses by bridges. In front of the houses, the garden with a an ornamental pond laid out. In order to divide the room, folding screen and bamboo blind screen were used. Syoji (障子)or sliding screen was not used at that time. Syoin-style house was build during  from  Kamalura era  to Edo era. Shoin literally means “a study or writing room.” where monks had a calm and humble life worshipping Buddhas, offering incense, chanting and reading Buddhist scriptures. The Shoin style is developed as a simplified version of the Shinden style . As the aristocrat Fujiwara clan, the defacto ruler of the era, was losing their influence, and warrior lords began to replace them, the Shoin style gained popularity to gradually become a standard of housing style. The key features of the style include a Toko-no-ma or decorative alcove, a Chigai-dana or two-step shelf, a Tsuke-shoin or attached writing table, and a Chodai-gamae or decorative doors. Defined as “decorative” elements in architectural terminology today, these units used to serve in a specific way. Monks would hang a Buddha image on the alcove wall and place offerings such as flowers, incense and light on its raised floor; keep scriptures on the shelf; do reading and writing on the attached table. Chodai-gamae once was the doors to a sleeping chamber. **帳台構え(Cyodai-gamae) is a decoration of  Shoin(study-room) style. It is the entrance of bed room which has law lintel and raising threshold and sliding paper-door having low length. The form of the entrance of the bedroom entrance became decoration. Sukiya-zukuri style originally denoted a building in which tea ceremony was done (known as a chashitsu) and was associated with flower flower arranging, and other Japanese traditional arts. It has come to indicate a style of designing public facilities and private homes based on tea house aesthetics. It is characterized by a use of natural materials such as bamboo , cider trees and soil for wall. Sukiya-zukuri is developed during Edo era. Suki means refined, well cultivated taste and delight in elegant pursuits  and refers to enjoyment of the exquisitely performed tea ceremony. 合掌造り: Gassho-type house. Gassho literally means prayers hands style. The shape of roof is like a pair of hands together when people pray. Thatched roof sharply inclines at 60 degree to prevent snow accumulate. The house is assembled strong fiber ropes and timber and made roof  by thatchers. Inside the house, there are big harness on the first floor to cook and to keep warm inside. The house usually has large attics under the big roof and used for cultivating silk warm , making woven fabrics using weaving machines and making sandals by straws. These products were good cash income in the region which has heavy snow.  
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