Changes and Challenges Like many countries, Japan faces various difficulties and challenges as it experiences the many changes of the early 21st century. Although Japan's mass media has been pessimistic about this situation, there are also many advantages. Japan's low birth rate and the low number of immigrants have resulted in an aging society . As Japan works to solve these problems, other countries will look at the Japan's model to see what works or what doesn't work. One such problem is low birth rate and resulting low of tax revenue. But keep in mind that many young adults and woman especially mother are underemployed or not employed at all. In addition, people who reached retirement age are still healthy to be able to work. They are so called reserve work force in Japan as a consequent. Another challenge faces to Japan is its efforts to maintain peace and harmony with neighboring countries, and to encourage a nuclear free world. Over 70 years after the end of world war Ⅱ, there is still lingering animosity toward Japan from neighboring countries. Nevertheless, the amount of mutual benefits between Japan and it’s neighboring countries such as China and South Korea make it unlikely that the tension will boil over into militarily action. Japan has strongly spoken in favor of a nuclear free world, but many countries still have joined the nuclear club. Japan still embraces its "peace" constitution. Furthermore, Japan achieved the economic growth, yet refrained from projecting its political and military power which is rare in modern history. Japan has been recognized as a nation that produce high quality products. In this sense, Japan prospered from globalization long before the word became known. Jaoan continues to be a leader in the high tech fields such as electronics, high speed rail transportation, and robotics. Nevertheless, the rapid economic growth in 70 and 80's are distant memory. Strong competition in the international market forces Japan to adjust. We can see the efforts of adjustments in labor markets. many Japanese companies has shifted the factory to the country that the labor wages are low. Job opportunities have shrunk and many companies have hired temporary workers who are low payed and can be easily dismissed. The result is a widening income gap between regular workers and non-permanent workers. This trend is especially distressing for a society that places so much value on social harmony and equality. But what is notable is that these new challenge have not resulted in social unrest to working hard and to adversity, and seem resilient in accepting changes. A final challenge for Japan and other countries is climate change and environment problem. Again Japan has advantages to deal with these problems. A well-developed mass transportation system is effective that Japanese people don't need to use gasoline burning automobiles. And furthermore, Japan is a leader in the development of automobiles . In addition, Japan is a leader in the development of automobiles that have alternative population systems. In Japan's long history, The Japanese have forced major political, social and economic upheavals. In response to this upheavals, the country adapted and changed, fully using the accumulated wisdom and knowledge. Japan now has still many challenges. It will be necessary to whether through the difficulties, belieave in their power, and to use their potential to the fullest.